Mushroom nutrient content

Mushroom

Mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many cuisines(notably Chinese, Korean, European, and Japanese). Humans have valued them as food since antiquity.

Most mushrooms sold in supermarkets have been commercially grown on mushroom farms. The most popular of these, Agaricus bisporus, is considered safe for most people to eat because it is grown in controlled, sterilized environments. Several varieties of A. bisporus are grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portobello. Other cultivated species available at many grocers include Hericium erinaceus, shiitake, maitake (hen-of-the-woods), Pleurotus, and enoki. In recent years, increasing affluence in developing countries has led to a considerable growth in interest in mushroom cultivation, which is now seen as a potentially important economic activity for small farmers.

China is a major edible mushroom producer. The country produces about half of all cultivated mushrooms, and around 2.7 kilograms (6.0 lb) of mushrooms are consumed per person per year by 1.4 billion people. In 2014, Poland was the world’s largest mushroom exporter, reporting an estimated 194,000 tonnes (191,000 long tons; 214,000 short tons) annually.

Separating edible from poisonous species requires meticulous attention to detail; there is no single trait by which all toxic mushrooms can be identified, nor one by which all edible mushrooms can be identified. People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mycophagists, and the act of collecting them for such is known as mushroom hunting, or simply “mushrooming”. Even edible mushrooms may produce allergic reactions in susceptible individuals, from a mild asthmatic response to severe anaphylactic shock. Even the cultivated A. bisporus contains small amounts of hydrazines, the most abundant of which is agaritine (a mycotoxin and carcinogen). However, the hydrazines are destroyed by moderate heat when cooking.

A number of species of mushrooms are poisonous; although some resemble certain edible species, consuming them could be fatal. Eating mushrooms gathered in the wild is risky and should only be undertaken by individuals knowledgeable in mushroom identification. Common best practice is for wild mushroom pickers to focus on collecting a small number of visually distinctive, edible mushroom species that cannot be easily confused with poisonous varieties. Common mushroom hunting advice is that if a mushroom cannot be positively identified, it should be considered poisonous and not eaten.

 

Mushroom nutrient content

Nutrient characteristics of mushrooms, per 100 g

Energy, (kcal/100g)

21,7

Water (g/100g)

92,6

Protein (g/100g)

2,37

Carbohydrate (g/100g)

1,88

Fat (g/100g)

0,23

Starch (g/100g)

0

Fibres (g/100g)

1,72

Ash (g/100g)

0,65

Cholesterol (mg/100g)

0

Salt (g/100g)

0,012

Calcium (mg/100g)

7,78

Chloride (mg/100g)

Copper (mg/100g)

0,32

Iron (mg/100g)

0,69

Iodine (µg/100g)

1

Magnesium (mg/100g)

10,9

Manganese (mg/100g)

0,061

Phosphorus (mg/100g)

85,6

Potassium (mg/100g)

341

Selenium (µg/100g)

< 2,78

Sodium (mg/100g)

4,76

Zinc (mg/100g)

0,65

Retinol (µg/100g)

0

Beta-carotene (µg/100g)

0

Vitamin D (µg/100g)

0,2

Vitamin E (mg/100g)

0,01

Vitamin K1 (µg/100g)

0

Vitamin K2 (µg/100g)

Vitamin C (mg/100g)

3,4

Vitamin B1 or Thiamin (mg/100g)

0,084

Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin (mg/100g)

0,42

Vitamin B3 or Niacin (mg/100g)

4,55

Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid (mg/100g)

1,75

Vitamin B6 (mg/100g)

0,082

Vitamin B9 or Folate (µg/100g)

29

Vitamin B12 (µg/100g)

0

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