Carrot nutrient content

Carrot

The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, typically orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist, all of which are domesticated forms of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and Southwestern Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the stems and leaves are also eaten. The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot.

The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family, Apiaceae. At first, it grows a rosette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot. Fast-growing cultivars mature within three months (90 days) of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing cultivars need a month longer (120 days). The roots contain high quantities of alpha- and beta-carotene, and are a good source of vitamin A, vitamin K, and vitamin B6.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that world production of carrots and turnips (these plants are combined by the FAO) for 2018 was 40 million tonnes, with 45% of the world total grown in China. Carrots are commonly consumed raw or cooked in various cuisines.

Carrots can be eaten in a variety of ways. Only 3 percent of the β-carotene in raw carrots is released during digestion: this can be improved to 39% by pulping, cooking and adding cooking oil. Alternatively they may be chopped and boiled, fried or steamed, and cooked in soups and stews, as well as baby and pet foods. A well-known dish is carrots julienne. Together with onion and celery, carrots are one of the primary vegetables used in a mirepoix to make various broths.

The greens are edible as a leaf vegetable, but are rarely eaten by humans; some sources suggest that the greens contain toxic alkaloids. When used for this purpose, they are harvested young in high-density plantings, before significant root development, and typically used stir-fried, or in salads.[60] Some people are allergic to carrots. In a 2010 study on the prevalence of food allergies in Europe, 3.6 percent of young adults showed some degree of sensitivity to carrots. Because the major carrot allergen, the protein Dauc c 1.0104, is cross-reactive with homologues in birch pollen (Bet v 1) and mugwort pollen (Art v 1), most carrot allergy sufferers are also allergic to pollen from these plants.

In India carrots are used in a variety of ways, as salads or as vegetables added to spicy rice or dal dishes. A popular variation in north India is the Gajar Ka Halwa carrot dessert, which has carrots grated and cooked in milk until the whole mixture is solid, after which nuts and butter are added. Carrot salads are usually made with grated carrots with a seasoning of mustard seeds and green chillies popped in hot oil. Carrots can also be cut in thin strips and added to rice, can form part of a dish of mixed roast vegetables or can be blended with tamarind to make chutney.

Since the late 1980s, baby carrots or mini-carrots (carrots that have been peeled and cut into uniform cylinders) have been a popular ready-to-eat snack food available in many supermarkets. Carrots are puréed and used as baby food, dehydrated to make chips, flakes, and powder, and thinly sliced and deep-fried, like potato chips.

The sweetness of carrots allows the vegetable to be used in some fruit-like roles. Grated carrots are used in carrot cakes, as well as carrot puddings, an English dish thought to have originated in the early 19th century. Carrots can also be used alone or blended with fruits in jams and preserves. Carrot juice is also widely marketed, especially as a health drink, either stand-alone or blended with juices extracted from fruits and other vegetables.

Highly excessive consumption over a period of time can result in carotenemia, a yellow-orange discoloration of the skin caused by a build up of carotenoids.

Carrot nutrient content

Nutrient characteristics of carrots, per 100 g

Energy, (kcal/100g)

40,2

Water (g/100g)

88,1

Protein (g/100g)

0,63

Carbohydrate (g/100g)

7,59

Fat (g/100g)

< 0,5

Starch (g/100g)

0,4

Fibres (g/100g)

2,7

Ash (g/100g)

0,72

Cholesterol (mg/100g)

0

Salt (g/100g)

0,11

Calcium (mg/100g)

25

Chloride (mg/100g)

56,8

Copper (mg/100g)

0,05

Iron (mg/100g)

0,24

Iodine (µg/100g)

< 20

Magnesium (mg/100g)

10

Manganese (mg/100g)

0,1

Phosphorus (mg/100g)

22

Potassium (mg/100g)

230

Selenium (µg/100g)

< 20

Sodium (mg/100g)

43

Zinc (mg/100g)

0,18

Retinol (µg/100g)

0

Beta-carotene (µg/100g)

8290

Vitamin D (µg/100g)

0

Vitamin E (mg/100g)

0,27

Vitamin K1 (µg/100g)

2,96

Vitamin K2 (µg/100g)

Vitamin C (mg/100g)

2,05

Vitamin B1 or Thiamin (mg/100g)

0,028

Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin (mg/100g)

< 0,01

Vitamin B3 or Niacin (mg/100g)

< 0,1

Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid (mg/100g)

0,2

Vitamin B6 (mg/100g)

0,093

Vitamin B9 or Folate (µg/100g)

59,4

Vitamin B12 (µg/100g)

0

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